Environmental science melds ecology, biology, oceanography, atmospheric science, geology, and more, studying natural and human-induced processes' interplay in Earth's biomes. Emerging from natural history and medicine in the Enlightenment, it now offers an interdisciplinary, quantitative approach to environmental systems research. Environmental studies extend to social sciences for insights into human perspectives, beliefs, and policies on the environment. Environmental engineering employs design and technology to enhance environmental well-being. While "environmental science" and "ecology" are sometimes used interchangeably, ecology centres on organism interactions and their environment. Environmental resources encompass substances, services, or information valuable to society, driving interdisciplinary studies in Environmental and Resource Science.