Tooth decay, commonly referred to as dental caries, stands as a prevalent chronic ailment impacting people globally across their lifespan. This condition evolves through a complex interplay involving acid-producing bacteria, fermentable carbohydrates, and various host elements like teeth and saliva. Gradually, it may lead to the formation of cavities—small holes within teeth. Neglected dental decay may result in infection, pain, and eventual tooth loss. All age groups, spanning from children to the elderly, are susceptible. Factors escalating caries risk encompass cariogenic bacteria, inadequate saliva flow, limited fluoride exposure, subpar oral hygiene, improper infant feeding practices, and socio-economic challenges.