Nutritional epidemiology examines dietary and nutritional factors' impact on disease prevalence at a population level. This emerging medical research field investigates the intricate connection between food and health, gaining relevance in contemporary health challenges. Nutritional factors are complex to assess, possibly contributing to their lesser focus in epidemiology compared to other disease risk factors. By applying nutritional science insights, nutritional epidemiology uncovers fundamental principles of human nutrition. This field employs methodologies like clinical, case-control, and cohort studies to explore diet-disease correlations, incorporating genetic risk factors for a multidisciplinary approach.