Bioremediation, a realm of biotechnology, employs living organisms like microorganisms and bacteria to eliminate contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from diverse environments like soil and water. This technique finds application in rectifying environmental problems such as oil spills or groundwater pollution. By stimulating the proliferation of bacteria that metabolize pollutants like oil, solvents, and pesticides for sustenance and energy, bioremediation facilitates their reduction. These microorganisms transform contaminants, along with benign gases like carbon dioxide, into minimal quantities of water.
In natural conditions, biodegradation refers to the disintegration of substances by native microbes into ecologically compatible byproducts like water, biomass, and carbon dioxide. This process encompasses three phases: biodeterioration, biofragmentation, and assimilation, collectively contributing to the environmentally sound decomposition of materials.