Biopolymers encompass natural compounds sourced from animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi, as well as chemically produced polymers derived from biological constituents like sugars, amino acids, oils, or natural lipids. The functional significance of these biopolymers in living organisms hinges on their interactions with other polymers. These versatile materials find diverse applications across the food industry and biomedical field. Their utility spans areas such as food packaging, encasing, and advancements in biomedical science.
Bioplastics, known as moldable plastics, are formed from biochemical components originating in microbes like bacteria or through genetic modification of plants. Unlike conventional petroleum-based plastics, bioplastics are created using renewable resources, with some variants even being biodegradable. However, bio plastics constitute a minor fraction of global plastic production due to challenges like limited yields and elevated production costs, which impede widespread commercial manufacturing endeavors.